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Иностранные языки ->

Твори на англійській мові

TEXT A.ALBERT EINSTEIN


       Albert Einstein, a well-known German physicist and mathematician, was
born in Germany on March 14, 1879. His unusual ability  to  mathematics  and
physics began to show itself at a technical school in Zurich. At the age  of
21, after four years of university study, Albert Einstein got  a  job  as  a
clerk in an office. But already in 1905 he  made  revolutionary  discoveries
in  science.  He  published  three  papers  in  the  field  of  physics  and
mathematics. In the first he explained the photoelectric effect by means  of
Planck's quantum theory. The second paper developed  a  mathematical  theory
of Brownian motion. He presented his  third  paper  on  "Special  Theory  of
Relativity" to a physical journal. Einstein  expressed  his  theory  in  the
equation E = mc2, roughly that energy equals mass times the  square  of  the
speed of light.
       All over the world scientists read the work with great surprise.  Few
physicists understood its importance at that time. Everybody wanted to  know
as much as possible about the author. In which institute did  he  teach?  In
what laboratory did he do his research?
       Einstein's fame among scientists grew slowly but surely.  For  a  few
years he lived in Prague where he worked as a professor.  When  he  came  to
Prague, he often told his students: "I shall always try to help you. If  you
have a problem, come to me with it, we shall solve it together".
       He liked questions and answered them  at  once,  for  there  were  no
simple or foolish questions for him. He spoke much with his  students  about
scientific problems and his new ideas. His advice to  students  was,  "Don't
take easy problems".
       In 1921 Einstein got the Nobel Prize in physics not for the theory of
relativity but for a logical explanation of the photoelectric effect.
       After the Great  October  Socialist  Revolution  in  Russia  Einstein
became a true  friend  of  the  young  Socialist  Republic.  He  established
scientific contacts with his colleagues in Soviet Russia.
       In 1922 he became a foreign member of the Russian Academy of Sciences
for his outstanding contributions to physics and mathematics.
       On March 14, 1979 by UNESCO decision all people throughout the  world
celebrated the birth centenary of the great 20th century scientist.



       Текст 1.        АЛЬБЕРТ  ЭЙНШТЕЙН

       Альберт  Эйнштейн,  хорошо  известный  немецкий  физик  и  математик,
родился в Германии 14 марта 1879 года. Свои  необыкновенные  способности  по
математике и физике начинал показывать ещё с технической школы в  Цюрихе.  В
21 год, после четырех лет обучения в университете, Альберт Эйнштейн  получил
работу клерком в офисе. Но уже в 1905 году он сделал революционное  открытие
в науке. Он опубликовал три доклада в области физики и математики. В  первом
он объяснял фотоэлектрический эффект посредством  квантовой  теории  Планка.
Второй доклад  развивал  математическую  теорию  броуновского  движения.  Он
представил  свой  третий  доклад  "Специальная  теория  Относительности"   в
физическом журнале.  Эйнштейн  выразил  свою  теорию  уравнением  Е  =  mс2,
количество энергии приблизительно  равняется  массе  умноженной  на  квадрат
скорости света.
       Во всем мире ученые читают  работы  с  большим  удивлением.  Немногие
физики понимали значение этого в то время. Каждый  хочет  знать  столько  об
авторе... В каком институте он преподавал?  В  каких  лабораториях  проводил
свои исследования.
       Известность Эйнштейна  среди  учёных  росла  медленно,  но  верно.  В
течении нескольких лет он жил в Праге, где работал  в  качестве  профессора.
Когда он приезжал в Прагу, он  часто  говорил  своим  студентам:  "Я  всегда
стараюсь помогать вам. Если у вас есть проблемы, обращайтесь ко  мне,  и  мы
будем решать их вместе".
       Он любил вопросы и давал ответы на них сразу, даже если они непростые
и глупые вопросы брался за них. Многие из таких студентов знают о  проблемах
науки и у них новые идеи. Совет студентов утверждает: "Нет легких проблем".
       В 1921 году Эйнштейн получил  Нобелевскую  Премию  по  физике  не  за
теорию  относительности,  а  за  логическое  объяснение   фотоэлектрического
эффекта.
       После  Великой  Октябрьской  Социалистической  революции   в   России
Эйнштейн становится верным другом молодой Социалистической Республики.
       Он установил научные контакты со своими коллегами в Советской России.
       В 1922 году он становится иностранным членом Российской Академии Наук
и вносит выдающийся вклад по физике и математике.
       14 марта 1979  года  решением  ЮНЕСКО  люди  всего  мира  праздновали
столетие со дня рождения великого в 20 веке учёного.


                        TEXT  B."INTENSIFIKATION-90"



       The exhibition "Intensifikation-90" which is devoted to economic  and
social developments of Leningrad region was on in  Leningrad.  Its  exhibits
show the Leningraders' efforts to improve the quality and efficiency of  the
region  production.  A  large  section   of  the   exhibition   demonstrates
electronics/
       The most impressive of the exhibits are robots. They can cut  metals,
drill holes, compute and teach. All robots  are  very  much  things  of  the
present. A multipurpose lathe-robot is specially interesting in that it  can
"ask questions". An engineer showed how it works. He  pressed  a  key  which
has the mark "Thread cutting". And "Thread pitch?" immediately  appeared  on
the video displey screen. The engineer pressed another  key  with  the  mark
"I". Another question came on: "Thread length?". The robot has  to  get  all
the answers to all its questions before it goes to work.
       Another exhibit was  a  "Sfera"  robot  which  was  to  operate  some
metallurgical processes. Before it starts working  its  operator  must  take
him by "hand" and go through all the  programme.  The  robot  memorizes  the
instructions and then is able to do everything by  itself  and  without  any
mistakes. Its memory can hold as many as 70 programmes.
       Practically all the  equipment  on  display  serves  to  improve  the
equipment on display serves to improve the productivity.  Intensifikation-90
 progpamme provides for  high  increase  in  production  of  technologically
perfect, top-quality and efficient types of machinery for Leningrad region.



                       "Интенсификация-90"


       Выставка "Интенсификация-90", которая посвящена для экономического  и
социального  развития  Ленинградской  области  проходила  в  Ленинграде.  Её
экспонаты, представленные усилиями ленинградцев предназначены для  улучшения
качества  и  производительности  областного  производства.   Большую   часть
выставки занимал показ электроники.
       Наиболее впечатляющий экспонат был робот.  Он  может  резать  металл,
сверлить отверстия, подсчитывать и обучать. Все присутствующие роботы  очень
хорошие  вещи  в  подарок.  Многоцелевой  токарно(станочный)   робот   особо
интересен  тем,  что  может  "задать  вопрос".  Инженер  показывал,  как  он
работает. Он нажимал на кнопку, которая называлась  "Резьбу  нарезать".  "И"
Шаг резки резьбы?" после этого появляется на  видео  (показывающем)  экране.
Инженер нажимает ещё одну  кнопку  промаркированной  "І".  Ещё  один  вопрос
появляется: "Длина резьбы". После того  как  робот  получит  все  ответы  на
вопросы, приступает к работе.
       Ещё  один  экспонат  "Сфера"  –  робот,  который  выполняет  операции
некоторых металлургических  процессов.  До  начала  работы  механик-оператор
должен взять его "в руки" и пройти через  все  программы.  Робот  вспоминает
инструкции и способен делать все что нужно и без всяких ошибок.  Его  память
может держать около 70 программ.
       Практически всё  оборудование,  выставленное  на  показ,  служит  для
улучшения  производительности.  Программа  "Интенсификация-90"  служит   для
увеличения     роста     производства      технологически      совершенного,
высококачественного и продуктивного, типичного  машинного  оборудования  для
Ленинградской области.



                  TEXT A.MACHINE-TOOLS-A MEASURE OF
                             MAN'S PROGRESS


       The variety and combinations of machine tools  today  are  unlimited.
Some of them are very small and can be mounted on a work  bench  but  others
are so large that we have to construct special buildings to house them.
       There are some basic operations at any workshop.  They  are  turning,
drilling,  threading,  etc.  The  main  machine-tool  a  workshop   is   the
multipurpose lathe. What is a lathe?  It  is  a  power-driven  machine  with
special tools which can cut  or  form  metal  parts.  The  metal  that  cuts
another metal must be very hard and so tools should be  made  of  very  hard
steel alloys.  The  tool  itself  is  very  small  in  comparison  with  the
mechanism that is to direct it.
       Technological progress improves accuracy of  machine  tools.  Today's
equipment can produce parts with very high accuracy. One can find  a  number
of machine tools that can measure and inspect their production themselves  –
machine tools that are to handle the parts mechanically  and  automatically.
Such machines can hold the parts which are to be measured  and  be  able  to
indicate precise measurements themselves. A  great  many  of  such  "clever"
machines can be found today in our industry.
       Since  machine  tools  become  faster  and  more  complex,  automatic
measurements and inspection ought to be of  greater  importance.  Automation
is one of the main factors of engineering progress.
       Flexible production lines form the basis for automated workshops. The
main principle of such a flexible line is the fact that it can  be  switched
over from one product to another,  which  has  a  similar  structure  but  a
different outline,  almost  instantaneously.  It  is  equally  efficient  in
conditions of will serve to increase the productivity.
       The USSR and other highly industrialized countries begin  making  use
of flexible modules and automated workshops on a broad basis.



                  TEXT A.ASTRONOMICAL CAPITAL
                             OF THE WORLD

       Two great observatories, Greenwich  and  Pulkovo,  occupy  a  leading
place among the observatories of the world.  Some  scientists  call  Pulkovo
the astronomical capital of the world.
       Pulkovo is situated in a hilly area some kilometers  from  Leningrad.
You can't get to Pulkovo by train – when the railway  was  being  built  the
astronomers specially asked that it should be kept several  kilometers  away
so that there should be no vibration to affect the sensitive instruments.
       The work started in 1839, when the observatory was opened,  is  being
continued now. This is the eternal work  of  astronomers  –  to  define  the
precise co-ordinates of the stars, to find  out  the  exact  "addresses"  of
heavenly bodies.
       But today the scientists also conduct  a  time  service,  they  study
activity of the Sun, follow the flights of the Earth sputniks and  calculate
their orbits. The scientists  of  the  observatory  have  made  a   valuable
contribution to the study of the  cosmos  by   observing  Soviet  artificial
Earth satellites,  man-made  moons.  The  study  of  their  orbits  is  very
important for the flights of manned spaceships.
       The Pulkovo observatory has  a  radio-astronomy  department  equipped
with modern apparatus. The big radio-telescope installed there  is  stronger
than any other telescope in the  world.  With  the  help  of  this  powerful
devise the scientists of the Pulkovo  observatory  carry  out  a  number  of
observations of Venus, Jupiter and  other  planets.  It  is  necessary  that
before flying to other planets scientists should get the  greatest  possible
information about the heavenly bodies.
        The astronomers have obtained extremely surprising  results  due  to
radio- astronomical  observation.  By  means  of  the  radio-telescope  some
remarkable studies of the surface of the Sun  and  of  solar  activity  have
been made and a method of investigating the movement  of  planets  has  been
worked out.
       Astronomical  observation  and  cosmic  experiments  are  spheres  of
scientific research in which broad co-operation  of  scientists  of  various
countries  would  be  most  effective.  Soviet   scientists,   workers   and
technicians have produced and launched space rockets  in  the  direction  of
the Moon, Venus and Mars and are fulfilling the  noble  dreams  of  mankind.
May there be peaceful ships flying the space routes and may they  serve  the
interests of all the people of the world!



            TEXT  A. TODAY'S ASTONISNING COMPUTERS


       Not long ago computers were not very reliable and comparatively  slow
in  operation.   Since  then,  several  generations  of  complex  electronic
computing equipment have been developed,  each  being  significantly  better
than the one before it. Almost every day  a  new  use  is  found  for  these
astonishing devices to help man.
       We know a computer to be a complex electronic device that  can  store
and  process  vast  quantities  of  information.   Following   instructions,
computing  equipment   will   perform   calculations   such   as   addition,
subtraction,  multiplication and division, and  provide  the  answers  to  a
large variety of problems in a tiny fraction of time.
       A computer  is  known  to  be  the  "heart"  of  an  electronic  data
processing system, other parts of equipment being auxiliary.
       There are two  main  types  of  computing  equipment  –  digital  and
analogue. They work differently and yield  different  results.  The  digital
computer is performing a much broader range of functions than  the  analogue
one.
       The analogue computer, as its name  implies,  produces  analogues  or
parallels of the process to be described or the problem to be  solved.  Both
the digital and analogue computers must be  "programmed".  This  means  they
must be set up in such a way  that  they  can  produce  a  result  from  the
information fed into them, and the information itself must be  organized  so
it can be handled by the machines.   These  devices  working  by  electronic
impulses perform at fantastic speed and with great precision.
       Looking to the future, computer makers see no end to the things  they
would like to accomplish. The computer of the future seems to  be  developed
by using bionics – biological functions of plants and animals – as  a  guide
in designing electronic circuits.
       Nowadays computer makers are working at the  problem  of  introducing
small computers into our  everyday  life  making  them  personal.  They  are
trying to develop a computer that will understand human language.
       Each new generation of computers opens up new possibilities for basic
and applied research.